Friday, November 18, 2011

Material Safety Data Sheet: ANSI Requirements

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has a more detailed format for the MSDS, this one is the most common, I found a nice website where you can find pretty much the MSDS of any substance: MSDS DATA BASE
Here i'll describe what kind of information you can find in these type of MSDS using the Benzene.

Section 1 - Chemical Product and Company Identification

 This section provides the Chemical name of the substance, along with the manufacturer contact information and Emergency numbers.

Section 2 - Composition, Information on ingredients
MSDS_ANSI_Section_2 Gives a list of the ingredients of the substance, the composition and CAS and other registry numbers.

Section 3 - Hazards Identification

This is an important section, it lists all the possible health effects and hazards such as Carcinogenic, Mutagenic or Teratogenic Effects; it also lists information about the toxicity and the symptoms after ingestion or inhalation.
This is one of the section that you MUST read before handling any Reagents on the Lab, there are many of them that can be a carcinogenic risk and you couldn't be aware of the danger.

Section 4 - First Aid Measures

This section gives instructions on what to do if any kind of exposure might have occur such as skin or eye contact, inhalation or ingestion and in some cases it includes instructions to medical professionals.

Section 5 - Fire Fighting Measures 

Fire being one of the most common reasons of accidents, this MSDS has a section about the possibility of the substance catching on fire, also describes the explosive properties and instructions on how to avoid and how to fight the fire involving this substance.

Section 6 - Accidental Release Measures

Important information if any spill or leak happens, how to proceed with the clean-up process. It may contain some safety precautions.

Section 7 - Handling and Storage 

 All the information about storage and handling practices, showing the best ways to keep the chemical safe from spilling, leaks or any other danger like fire or un-wanted human contact. Some insurance companies will require you comply with all the requirements on this section and section 6.

Section 8 - Exposure Controls, Personal Protection 

This section is dedicated to give information about how to prevent any kind of exposure to the substance with the required Persona Protective Clothing and Equipment

Section 9 - Physical and Chemical properties 

This section is self explanatory, it provides all the Chemical and Physical information such as boiling point, color or odor. This might help you identify any kind of danger.

Section 10 - Stability and Reactivity 
Important section to be aware of any potential hazardous reaction of the substance

Section 11 - Toxicological Information 

Further information about health hazards, Tested Toxicology and the outcome of these tests.

Section 12 - Ecological Information 

This section provides information about environmental hazards in case if the substance is spilled outside the Lab.

Section 13 - Disposal Considerations

The proper procedures when it comes the time to dispose any sub products or the substance itself.

Section 14 - Transport Information
Important information when it comes to transport the substance, every transportation company will ask you this before accepting any contract.

Section 15 - Regulatory Information

Every country has different regulation regarding any substance, this section will provide any available information about regulations in other States or Countries.

Section 16 - Other Information 

Section mainly used for MSDS related information.

Laboratory Reagents: Safety first

I know that once you are in a Lab, the first thing that comes to your mind is start mixing things and watch chemical reactions; I've been there but trust me, its important to know what type of chemicals you are dealing with in case something goes wrong.
Every laboratory must keep the MSDS (Material Safety Data sheet) of every single one of the reagents they use. This sheet has all the important data regarding the properties of a particular substance.
Now i will talk about what kind of information can be found on the MSDS; depending on the regulations and laws of every country, each MSDS has specific requirements, the next part is a General description of the MSDS form.

A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) MUST be used by any chemical manufacturers, resellers and every one that will have a direct contact with the substance, this to be aware of the physical and health hazards that these chemicals might present such as flammability, flashpoint, carcinogenicity, poison hazard, etc.
Like i said depending on the regulation the MSDS might present different sections.

The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) requires the following sections on every MSDS:

  • Manufacturer's Name and Contact Information
  • Hazardous Ingredients/Identity Information
  • Physical/Chemical Characteristics
  • Fire and Explosion Hazard Data
  • Reactivity Data 
  • Health Hazard Data
  • Precautions for Safe Handling and Use
  • Control Measures
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has a slightly different format.

  • Chemical Product & Company Information
  • Composition/Information on Ingredients
  • Hazards Identification
  • First Aid Measures
  • Fire Fighting Measures
  • Accidental Release Measures
  • Handling and Storage
  • Exposure Controls/Personal Protection
  • Physical and Chemical Properties
  • Stability and Reactivity
  • Toxicological Information
  • Ecological Information
  • Disposal Considerations
  • Transport Information
  • Regulatory Information
  • Other Information

Stay tuned, ill explain more about each section of the MSDS.

Thursday, November 17, 2011

Types of Chemical Reactions

I’ve been pretty busy these past weeks and I’m sorry for not being able to help everyone who has e-mailed me for help, Don't worry I'll respond to every single one of you. University has taken a lot of time from me, but I'm still alive if anyone was wondering :).

Now let’s get back to business, I've had a few questions about the Chemical Reactions, there are many types of reactions but most can be place into similar categories, depending on the characteristics of the Reaction. Here i present the ones that come up in my mind, I'm sure there are a lot more, but i hope these ones help you guys with your high school homework (expecting its not too late Mark & Richard)

  • Synthesis
This is when 2 or more compounds combine forming a more complex product:

A + B → AB 

  • Decomposition
This can be considered as the opposite of the Synthesis Reaction, when a compound is broken into less complex compounds.

AB → A + B 
  • Combustion
This can be the most recognized reaction, happens when a combustible material in addition to Oxygen generates heat forming Carbon dioxide and water (most common products).

Combustible Material +  O2 → CO2 + H2O

  • Single Displacement
A substitution or single displacement reaction happens when 1 single element is replaced (displaced) by another element.

A + BC → AC + B 

  • Double Displacement
In a double displacement 2 elements on different compounds switch places.

AB + CD → AD + CB 

  • Acid-Base
This reaction happens when the H+ ion of an acid reacts with the OH- ion of a Base. Generally forming water and a salt.

HA + BOH → H2O + BA

  • Oxidation-Reduction
Also known as a Redox reaction, in these reactions the oxidation numbers of the elements involved change, while 1 element is being oxidized, other is reducted.

These are the most common, but like i said there are more.

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